#1 Grade Average quality material. The quality is very close to that of cabin grade products.
Above Grade Flooring which is installed above ground level - ex. Second Floor
Acclimation A process in which the Hardwood is exposed to the temperature of the installation area, prior to installation.
Base Molding Molding placed upon the region where the floor meets the wall.
Beveled Edge A deep, 45 degree cut on the side and end joints of the hardwood flooring. Looks like a V in appearance.
Below Grade Installation area which is below ground level – ex. Basement
Blisters or Bubbles Marks which look like bubbles on the surface of the hardwood finish, due to improper application.
Bowed (also known as Buckling or Crowning) Condition in which the material bends or curves. Usually caused by moisture. In order to cure this issue, must apply concrete sealer MVP (Moisture Vapor Protection) prior to installation.
Cabin Grade This material is usually sold without a warranty. This type of grade usually comes with manufacturing defects or the material will come in many different variations of color.
Chamfering A cut that is made in wood, usually at a 45 degree angle to the adjacent principle faces.
Checks Splits or openings in the hardwood material that run parallel to the grain
Concrete A strong hard building material composed of sand, gravel, cement and water
Core The synthetic material in engineered products that is sandwiched between the top and bottom layer of engineered hardwood.
Crook Condition affecting the hardwood material. Combination of crooked or twisted alterations within the hardwood.
Crowning Condition affecting the hardwood material, creating a convex profile on the surface. Cause: Moisture from above.
Cupping Condition affecting the hardwood material. The hardwood surface assumes the shape of a cup. Cause: Moisture from below
Delamination Condition affecting the hardwood material. The separation of the layers within an engineered product. Cause: failure of adhesive used in the manufacturing process or excessive stress and impact.
Distressed Hardwood style, in which the product has been scraped, dinged or scratched to give it an aged appearance at the time of manufacture.
Dowell A round wooden pin that is used to reinforce a wood joint
Eased Edge Chamfered or slightly beveled product. Provides a more subtle appearance as opposed to a deeper bevel. Eased or micro bevels are very common with prefinished manufacturers as they are designed to "disguise" milling irregularities. IE over and under wood.
End Joint Where two pieces of hardwood flooring meet on each end.
End Matched Tongue and groove installation method on the ends of the product.
Engineered Term used to describe synthetically layered hardwood flooring.
Face The surface area of the final product.
Filler Used to fill minor gaps in hardwood flooring products during installations.
Finish Laps & Skips The result of applying hardwood improperly during installation.
Floating Floor Hardwood flooring that is fastened with adhesive on the side and end
Joints, but not to the subfloor. More recent are the click together or tongue and groove floors that require no glue.
Gloss Shine or sheen of the finish.
Gloss Level The level of the gloss measured by a gloss meter. The higher the gloss, the higher the number. (100 would be a mirror, 0 would be black.)
Grain The appearance of the wood fibers. Each species holds its own unique design.
Heartwood Inner core of a tree, that is usually darker and harder.
High Gloss The type of finish appearance that has the most shine to it. Shows damage and scratches much faster.
Joist The horizontal framing members that support the floor, spanning between beams or walls
Knot The appearance of irregular circular imperfections caused by branch shoots from the tree.
Knot Hole Openings produced when a knot drops from the wood in which it was originally embedded.
Laminate Concentrated layers of particle board and fiber fused together, with designs and colors that mimic Hardwood flooring
Lumber logs which have been sawn and cut to length. Hardwood that is cut and prepared as building material
Micro Bevel The slightest or smallest type of beveling in prefinished Hardwood products.
Mineral Streaks Hardwood color goes from greenish brown to black due to the mineral content of the soil where it was grown.
Moisture Content The amount of moisture in hardwood flooring. The number represents a percentage of the actual dried material. Content will vary from one region to another. Consult an experienced professional for the average in your region.
Moisture Meter Devices used to measure moisture content in the material and subfloors
Out of Square Material ends that are not cut at a precise right angle
Overwood A condition where the end and side joints of adjacent boards are not vertically flush. Very common with many prefinished square edge products; solid and engineered.
Pin Holes Small round holes in wood caused by insects.
Pin Knots A knot less than a 1/4" in diameter and containing a dark center.
Plainsawn Wood that has been sawn from a hardwood log in such a manner that the growth rings form an angle from 0° to 45° with the surface of the board
Plywood A piece of wood made of three or more layers of wood veneer laminated together with glue.
Pressure Treated Lumber that is treated in such a way that the sealer is forced into the pores of the wood.
Roofing Felt Or asphalt felt paper. Used for moisture and tweak protection when installing over wood subfloors. Also used as a barrier for hardwood installations on concrete slabs under plywood.
Quarter Sawn Wood sawn from a hardwood log in such a manner so the growth rings form an angle from 45° to 90° with the surface of the board. Tiger stripe like appearance.
Rift Sawn Lumber in which the annual rings make angles of 30° to 60° with the surface of the board.
Roller Lines Mark made on the board caused by an indentation on a roller from the UV machines.
Sapwood Live wood portion of a tree surrounding the heartwood. Generally it is lighter in color than the heartwood.
Select Top of the line production from manufacturer. Highest quality material offered.
Shake Separation along the grain between annual ring growth of the tree
Side Matched Tongue and groove construction on the sides of the hardwood product.
Sound Knots A knot that is solid across its face and fixed in place by growth to retain its place.
Square Edge Tongue and grooved flooring with edges that are not eased or beveled
Stain Spots Dark drops or spots on the surface of the wood from the stain
Stapler Used for direct fastening of hardwood to wood subfloors. New alternative to nail down and glue down installations.
Surfaced Lumber Lumber that has been planed or sanded smooth on one or more surfaces
T-Molding Molding used for transitions between rooms. Separates different flooring materials Ex. Carpet from Hardwood
Threshold Plank that lies directly under the doorway.
Toe Nailing Also known as side nailing, this is a process in which the hardwood is nailed to the sub floor at a 45º angle.
Tongue and Groove A joint in which a protrusion (tongue) that runs along the edge of a board fits into a matching groove that runs along the edge of another board. Also referred to as T&G
Top Nailing With nail or staple installations it is necessary in some areas to nail to the surface of the board on wood subfloors as there is no room to side or blind nail
UV Cured Urethane A special type of urethane that is cured by subjecting the polyurethane to a specific dosage of radiation in the form of ultraviolet light.
Underlayment Used under hardwood before installation.
Veneer Surface layer of engineered floors. Also termed Wear Layer.
Visqueen Plastic sheathing used for moisture barriers. More common with floating engineered floors on concrete.
Warping Any distortion of a piece of wood from its true shape and from
Wear Layer Often called veneer. The actual surface layer of engineered hardwood flooring that can be sanded. Thicknesses vary among manufacturers.
Worm Holes Condition affecting the hardwood material. Holes created by worms burring through the tree.